When to Cram Carbs In an Ultra-Endurance Event

When to Cram Carbs In an Ultra-Endurance Event

One of the most frequent questions we get is how much carbs do I need to take (or, often, how much can I take) during my long-duration events, races, or training? This blog is a follow-up to the previous blog about increasing carbs/hour during endurance exercise, where Dr. Bucci answered that question. One thing he didn’t cover in that last blog is that, with higher carb intake, timing is everything, so in this blog, Dr. Bucci addresses when to go big on carbs.


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September 29, 2022 — Luke Bucci
How Many Carbs Should Endurance Athletes Really Consume Per Hour?

How Many Carbs Should Endurance Athletes Really Consume Per Hour?

One of the most frequent questions we get is: How many carbs do I need to take during my long-duration events, races or training lasting more than three hours? The prevailing wisdom has long been set at 30-60 grams per hour (120-240 calories/hour), and usage directions for EFS & EFS-PRO are based on this time-tested range. But emerging research suggests athletes can ingest more and more carbs per hour: 90-140 grams or 360-560 Calories. That’s 1.5 to 19 times MORE carbs than the endurance experts have agreed upon for years!


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August 25, 2022 — Luke Bucci
PharmaGABA®: Unparalleled Innovation for Unparalleled Performance

PharmaGABA®: Unparalleled Innovation for Unparalleled Performance

Research shows the brain plays a significant role in fatigue and exercise tolerance. Our latest formulations of EFS and EFS-PRO expand the focus beyond simply supporting your body to buttressing up mental toughness—often the final hurdle an athlete has to overcome whether they’re training alone or competing.


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May 31, 2022 — Luke Bucci
Tags: EFS EFS-PRO
Dehydration & Muscle Cramps

Dehydration & Muscle Cramps

The most common complaint fielded at First Endurance about endurance training is cramping, known officially in scientific literature as Exercise-Associated Muscle Cramping (EAMC). 

In this blog installment, Dr. Bucci explains how First Endurance products use the latest scientific research and a refusal to accept axioms in product formulation in order to actually prevent dehydration cramps, not just treat them once they occur.


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October 19, 2021 — Luke Bucci
Tags: EFS EFS-PRO
The Glycemic Index & Carbohydrate Fueling

The Glycemic Index & Carbohydrate Fueling

The Glycemic Index (GI) is a characteristic of carbs in different foodstuffs that affects choosing what carbs to use during long-term exercise. Since glucose is by far the main sugar in the bloodstream, glycemic index tracks the change in blood glucose levels for 4-6 hours after eating on an empty stomach, and it’s measured by administering 100 grams (about a quarter pound) dry weight of a specific carb source. The area under the curve for the rise in blood sugar from 100 grams of glucose is defined as a GI = 100.


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September 26, 2021 — Luke Bucci
Amino Acids, Exercise, & Immune Health – Timing Is Everything

Amino Acids, Exercise, & Immune Health – Timing Is Everything

We typically associate amino acids with rebuilding muscles and post-training recovery, so why are amino acids important for immune function? Because your immune system operates differently from muscles, nerves, and other organs; it uses amino acids as energy, even preferring them to glucose and fats.

The immune system’s major amino acid fuels are glutamine and the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine, which we’ll just lump together as BCAAs for this blog. Because of their known importance for immune cells, research has focused on these amino acids and immune function in long-term, strenuous exercise.


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August 17, 2021 — Luke Bucci
Tags: EFS EFS-PRO
The F in EFS – Carbohydrate Fuel System Explained

The F in EFS – Carbohydrate Fuel System Explained

Long-term endurance exercise pushes the limits of human muscle physical performance. Whether you run, cycle, climb, swim, or a combination, your muscles need to remain fueled for as long as you are going. After taking care of water and electrolytes, fuel is the next hurdle to master for extending performance. Decades of focused human research has found the basics of how to fuel endurance performance. EFS was designed with this information on hand, but was also field-tested to fine-tune the mix of fuel that has worked so well.


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May 25, 2021 — Luke Bucci
Tags: Carbs EFS EFS-PRO
How to Fuel For Success on HOT Days

How to Fuel For Success on HOT Days

Training and racing in cold weather is entirely different than training and racing on hot days.  Strange things happen in hot conditions;  some athletes thrive while others fall apart.  Your nutrition program has a lot to do with how well you handle extreme conditions.  Dehydration, cramping, and GI distress can wreak havoc on your performance, so it’s important to pay attention to your sweat rate.


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April 20, 2021 — Rob Ware
Tags: EFS EFS-PRO
When To Use EFS-PRO vs EFS

When To Use EFS-PRO vs EFS

After months of research-driven tinkering, testing, and trial, we’ve updated the formulas for EFS and EFS-PRO hydration mixes. Given the technical–and, frankly, revolutionary–nature of both formulas, we compiled a list of changes to quickly highlight and explain the differences and confirm what’s stayed the same.


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April 20, 2021 — Rob Ware
Tags: EFS EFS-PRO
Debunking The Myth: Sports Drinks Claim To Hydrate Better Than Water

Debunking The Myth: Sports Drinks Claim To Hydrate Better Than Water

This is an extended A for a Q&A in response to a tendency for some hydration mix companies to make spurious claims about how their products hydrate faster than or better than water. In this extended Q&A, Dr. Luke R. Bucci explains why the science behind those claims doesn’t apply to endurance athletics.
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January 11, 2021 — Luke Bucci
Tags: EFS EFS-PRO
Cyclic Cluster Dextrin: A Superior Carbohydrate For Endurance

Cyclic Cluster Dextrin: A Superior Carbohydrate For Endurance

Cyclic Cluster Dextrin is turning out to be a premier form of carbohydrates for extending exercise performance, probably by not having the drawbacks of other carbohydrate sources. CCD’s unique molecular structure gives it the ability to not have gastric side effects and to help prevent central fatigue (feeding the brain) that other carbohydrates cannot do as well. CCD – a better mousetrap for delivering carbs during endurance exercise.


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July 20, 2020 — Luke Bucci
Tags: EFS-PRO
Cyclic Cluster Dextrin: Cutting Edge Technology for Superior Performance

Cyclic Cluster Dextrin: Cutting Edge Technology for Superior Performance

CCD stands for Cyclic Cluster Dextrin and is actually a common term for the trademark name (CCD®) for Highly-Branched Cluster Dextrins (HBCDs) from a Japanese company called Ezaki Glico. CCDs are not cyclodextrins, and not “regular” single-chain starches like amylose or maltodextrins, but they more closely resemble amylopectins (branched-chain starches). With a twist, literally. 
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June 16, 2020 — Luke Bucci
Tags: EFS-PRO